Step 1: Identify your study Design

Not sure how? These resources will help you figure it out:

  • National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). Methods for the development of NICE public health guidance (third edition). Appendix E Algorithm for classifying quantitative (experimental and observational) study designs. 2012. Click here for the algorithm.
  • Grimes, David A et al. (2002) An overview of clinical research: the lay of the land. The Lancet, 359(9300), 57 - 61. Click here for full text

Futher reading:

  • Grimes D.A. & Schulz K.F. (2002) Cohort studies: marching towards outcomes. Lancet 359(9303):341–345. Click here for full text
  • Grimes D.A. & Schulz K.F. (2002) Case-control studies: research in reverse. Lancet 359:431–34. Click here for full text


Step 2: Click on the study design below to access relevant critical appraisal tools